AGGRESSION ON AFGHANISTAN 437 to power by Great Britain. At the same-time it is easy to exaggerate the military importance of the destruction of a brigade. The loss was avenged, and would in consequence soon be forgotten. Upon the whole, when we consider the enormous distances, the lack of supplies and water, and the bad communications. Great Britain would appear to have been fortunate in suffering only one disaster. The British Mission to Herat, 1839-1841.—Yar Mohamed Khanl was the first to congratulate Shah Shuja upon his restoration to the throne, and it was decided to send a mission from India to Herat and to make a treaty with its ruler. Major D'Arcy Todd, who had been with McNeill at the siege, was selected for the task, and the mission was " received with every mark of respect by the Monarch and his Minister/' A treaty was concluded, by the terms of which the Government of India paid a monthly subsidy of twenty-five thousand rupees, in return for which it was stipulated that all intercourse with Persia should be carried on through the British. As might have been expected, however, the Vizier was unable to refrain from intriguing, and before very long Todd received from the Legation at Teheran the copy of a letter Yar Mohamed had addressed to Mohamed Shah, in which he stated that his hopes rested on the " Asylum of the Universe" and that the English were tolerated merely from motives of ex- pediency. This was condoned, but after a residence of eighteen months Todd discovered that a mission had been sent by Yar Mohamed to Meshed. He thereupon stopped pay- ment of the subsidy and, a breach ensuing, the British representative, realizing that the Vizier was bitterly hostile, withdrew from Herat. The Settlement with Persia.—We must now return to Persia. Mohamed Shah, as we have seen, when forced to abandon the siege of Herat, had hastily agreed to fulfil all the demands of the British Government, but he was most unwilling to evacuate Ghorian, Farrah, and Afghan Sabzawar. He was likewise unwilling to apologize to the 1 In Caravan Journeys, by J. P. Ferrier, a good account is given of this consummate scoundrel.